Session 2.1

Session Title: Stereotypes

C for EOrganiser(s): 

  • Mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing
  • Literacy:  Listening and Talking

Experiences and Outcomes

 HWB 3-10A, 4-10A

I recognise that each individual has a unique blend of abilities and needs.  I contribute to making my school community one which values individuals equally and is a welcoming place for all. 

LIT 4-10A

I can communicate in a clear, expressive manner when engaging with others with and beyond my place of learning, and can independently select and organise appropriate resources as required. 

Learning outcomes

I can discuss different stereotypes

  • I can recognise some of the feelings some groups that can be stereotyped may experience.
  • I can identify some of the negative labels that can be associated with stereotyping.  
  • I can discuss why it is wrong to judge people based on their identity and recognise the negative consequences associated with this.


  • Flip chart paper and pens


How would you define or explain stereotypes? (5 mins)

A "stereotype" is a generalization about a person or group of persons. We develop stereotypes when we are unable or unwilling to obtain all of the information we would need to make fair judgments about people or situations. In the absence of the "total picture," stereotypes in many cases allow us to "fill in the blanks." Our society often innocently creates and perpetuates stereotypes, but these stereotypes often lead to unfair discrimination and persecution when the stereotype is unfavourable.

For example, if we are walking through a park late at night and encounter three old people wearing fur coats and walking with canes, we may not feel as threatened as if we were met by three young boys wearing hoodies. Why is this so? We have made a generalization in each case. These generalizations have their roots in experiences we have had ourselves, read about in books and magazines, seen in movies or television, or have had related to us by friends and family

Labelling People  

Introduce the idea of gender stereotypes; Gender stereotypes are over-generalizations about the characteristics of an entire group based on gender. Gender stereotypes begin the second a baby’s gender is found out.   As soon as people find out they are having a baby girl, they immediately begin decorating a pink nursery filled with butterflies and flowers.   They dress her in pink frilly dresses and buy her toy tea sets and dolls.   Stereotyping is no different when it’s found out that a boy is on the way. The nursery is decked out in blue, they buy him tiny jeans, polo shirts, and boots, and the theme is usually something like jungle animals or dinosaurs; something tough. Boys’ toys consist of trucks, dinosaurs, action figures, and video games.  From the beginning boys are taught to be tough, to be protective, and to defend themselves.

Gender Stereotypes;  (20 mins)

In pairs, introducing themselves as stereotypical ‘girls’ and ‘boys’ using statements.

  • My favourite colour is…
  • My favourite sport is…
  • My favourite thing is…
  • I wear…
  • When I grow up I want to be…

There are lots of other gender stereotypes about males and females.

Then ask participants, to come up with a list of as many gender stereotypes they can think about:  

  • Women are supposed to have "clean jobs" such as secretaries, teachers, and librarians
  • All men enjoy working on cars
  • Women are nurses, not doctors
  • Men do "dirty jobs" such as construction and mechanics; they are not secretaries, teachers, or cosmetologists
  • Women are not as strong as men
  • Men do not do housework and they are not responsible for taking care of children
  • Women are supposed to make less money than men
  • Men play video games
  • The best women are stay at home mums
  • Men play sports

Discuss and Debate; 

Can you see how many of these actually are true of many men or women that you know?

They may even be true for you personally, but they do not apply to every single man or woman alive.   That is what makes them stereotypes; the fact that these things are considered, "the norm" and expected of every male or female.

  • Do you think men and women are given the same opportunities?
  • Why are only 3% of child care workers men?
  • What if boys wanted to be a beautician or a girl a mechanic?
  • Why is girl’s football not as popular as men’s?

Each person is an individual and it is perfectly normal for a woman to run her own business while a man stays home with the kids. On the other hand it is also perfectly acceptable for a man to be a nurse or hate sports, or enjoy cooking.   Men and women are individuals; they are more than just male or female. Our gender is only part of who we are; it does not define us as people. 

Labelling Young People (20 Mins)

Split participants work into small groups and ask them to discuss stereotypical views of teenagers or different groups of young people. 

Create a stereotypical image of teenagers or a group of young people.

  • Decide whether this is fair or not?
  • Explain the consequences of this label
  • Ask groups to present their images / statements and explore how it feels to be labelled in that way.


  • What statements did you make?
  • Was it easy to think of stereotypical labels?
  • How do you feel being labelled in this way?
  • What could be the problem with being labelled in this way?
  • What issues relate to prejudice against young people, e.g. all hoodie wearers are neds, only one young person in a shop at a time, young people gathering in large groups being considered intimidating etc.
  • How are young people reflected in the media, and how does it affect adults’ attitudes and behaviour?

Prejudice and stereotyping are biases that work together to create and maintain social inequality


Stereotypes are not only harmful in their own right; they do damage by fostering prejudice and discrimination.  Stereotypes can cause prejudice because it is a false misconception about a race, which ruins their reputation. For example, it is a common stereotype that african-americans cause a lot of crimes. This is a very untrue statement, but a lot of people believe it, and so therefore that can lead people to become racist against blacks, when in reality the stereotype isn't even true. This doesn't just apply to african-americans though -- all races have stereotypes that cause misconceptions in their race, and therefore lead to prejudice and racism, which we are going to explore more in the next exercises.


What about Cultural Stereotypes, can you think about any Scottish Stereotypes?

  • All wear kilts
  • Eat Haggis
  • Have Red hair
  • Drink Whiskey
  • Loch Ness Monster

What other stereotypes exist?

Race, Religion, Nationality, Sports, Occupations,

Some Examples;

  • All blond women are dumb.
  • Goths are either part of a rock band, depressed, or do drugs.
  • All librarians are women who are old, wear glasses, tie a high bun, and have a frown on their face.
  • All teenagers are rebels.
  • Children don't enjoy healthy food.
  • White people can’t dance
  • All Irish are alcoholics
  • All Italians are mobsters or have links to the mob.

Get participants to keep a log whilst watching their favourite television programmes, and note any instances they think a character is being treated as a stereotype.

Have participants complete the following sentences, then break up into small groups to compare their answers and discuss their answers as well as what factors (e.g., television, newspapers, friendships, attitudes of their parents) may have contributed to such stereotypes:

1) All athletes are                                                 2) People on benefits are all

3) All politicians are                                             4) Homeless people are

5) All male hairdressers are                                 6) All male ballet dancers are

7) He's quick-tempered, so he must be                8) He drinks like a fish, so he must be

Ask participants to write down characteristics of each of the following groups:

1) African-Americans                                   2) Rich people

3) Fat people                                                   4) Men

5)  Women                                                       6) Poor People

7)  Teachers                                                     8) Politicians

Can’t judge a book by its cover – or can you?

Discuss the statement ‘You can’t judge a book by its cover’.

Is this true? Is it right or fair to judge people on face value? Highlight the importance of understanding and finding out facts

Session 2.2

Session Title: Prejudice

C for E Organiser(s): 

  • Mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing
  • Religious and Moral Education

Experiences and Outcomes

 HWB 3-10A, 4-10A

I recognise that each individual has a unique blend of abilities and needs.  I contribute to making my school community one which values individuals equally and is a welcoming place for all. 

RME   4-07e

 I am developing respect for others and my understanding of their beliefs and values

Learning Intentions

  • I can understand that people are treated unfairly because of their characteristics
  • I can show an understanding of what is meant by prejudice and what different forms exist.


  • HandoutPrejudice News

Recap/Two Minute challenge

Stereotypes: Read out following riddle.

A van driver whistles to a nurse on the street then swerves to miss a parked car and crashes into a young boy and his father who are driving to school. The father dies at the scene. The boy is transported to the hospital, taken immediately into surgery... but the surgeon steps out of the operating room and says, "I can't operate on this boy - he is my son”!

  • How can the boy be the surgeon’s son?
  • The surgeon could be a woman and it is her son.
  • Or the surgeon could be a man and they are a gay couple with a son.
  • Is the van driver a man or woman?


Intro:  Prejudice is when you have formed an opinion about something even before you know the real story. Prejudice makes us treat people differently.

Prejudice:  True/False (25 mins)

Read out the following statements and get young people to vote whether the statements are true or false.  If you have space you can ask participants to move from one corner of room for true and another one for false.  If you do not have space just get young people to raise their arm.



  • The exact meaning of prejudice is prejudgment. - True
  • Prejudice is usually a negative attitude towards the members of some social group - True
  • Prejudice refers tothe attitude of the majority of people toward the minority - False
  • Prejudice enhances a person’s ability to properly process information, therefore allows them to judge others accurately. - False, prejudice limits a person’s ability to properly process information, and to judge others accurately)
  • People are born prejudice - False - It is a learned attitude
  • Although positive forms of prejudice exist, it is usually harmful and negative. - True
  • There are 3 elements to prejudice - True:

(i) A cognitive component (Entrenched and fixed attitudes and beliefs, based on membership of a group.)

(ii) An affective component (Feelings we have about the people in those groups.)

(iii) A behavioural component (A predisposition to act in certain, discriminatory ways towards the members of the group.)

  • The exact meaning of prejudice is prejudgment. - True
  • Prejudice is usually a negative attitude towards the members of some social group - True
  • Prejudice is the same as discrimination - False - Prejudice is not the same - Prejudice refers to attitudes and beliefs; discrimination refers to the associated actions and behaviours. Thus, the two are closely intertwined - but not the same.
  • Prejudices don't cost our society and therefore are really only a problem to those who are the victims of prejudiced behaviour - False
  • Sexism, racism, ageism , homophobia and prejudices toward those with disabilities all have basically the same dynamics - True

Prejudice News(25 mins )

Ask young people to read the news extracts on the handout prejudice news and highlight any evidence of prejudiced attitudes.   Read the news extracts on the worksheets.  Ask the young people to think about;

  • What is the prejudiced attitude?
  • Who is the prejudice directed towards?

Group Discussion;

  • What prejudicial views did you read about?
  • How would the prejudiced attitude impact on the individual and group of people?
  • Are these prejudiced attitudes based on any stereotypes?  What labels are being made?
  • How would you feel to be treated in this way?
  • If people respected each other’s differences, would they have the same attitudes?

Prejudice news

Story 1

Rizzle Kicks hip-hop act in the UK, with two top 10 albums and a contemporary pop classic in the shape of Mama Do The Hump. Talk about the state of rap music.

"I can't listen to hip-hop at the moment," says Jordan Stephens. "I really struggle."

Grounded in hip-hop's "golden age" of laid-back grooves and dusty jazz samples, Stephens is decidedly unimpressed by his contemporaries. "The stuff I'm hearing in the mainstream... it's overly-misogynistic (hatered of women) and it's still homophobic (disapproval of gay and lesbian people or their culture)," he says. "It does my head in."

As a hip-hop scholar, the 21-year-old is aware that homophobia is a running theme in the genre. Rapper's Delight, the first rap song to make the US top 40, featured a bizarre put-down of Superman: "He's a fairy, I do suppose / Flying through the air in pantyhose".

But, as recently as last month, Eminem's Rap God won five star reviews despite lyrics like: "You fags think its all a game".  Stephens acknowledges that "turns of phrases take a while to die out".  "But when it's vicious, I don't understand why you'd bother. Think of something more inventive to say. It's a cultural thing that needs to piss off, basically."

Story 2

Madonna spoke up for gypsies during a concert in Romania, leading thousands of audience members to boo her, the AP reports. “I found out that there is a lot of discrimination against gypsies in Eastern Europe and that makes me very sad,” the Romanian Times quotes her as saying.

“We believe in acceptance, gypsies, homosexuals, people that are different,” continued the singer, who featured gypsy musicians and a dancer in her show. “Everyone must be treated the same, don't forget that.” Madonna didn't react to the boos from the crowd.

 Story 3

Abercrombie & Fitch is facing a major backlash over its decision not to sell women’s clothes larger than size 10 (UK size 14), including a pledge by actress Kirstie Alley to never again buy anything from the clothier.

The average woman’s size in the U.S. is 14, but Abercrombie & Fitch CEO Mike Jeffries once told Salon, “A lot of people don’t belong in our clothes, and they can’t belong. Are we exclusionary? Absolutely.”

Alley, in an interview with Entertainment Tonight, said: “I’ve got two kids in that bracket who will never walk into those stores because of his view of people

The company have also been accused  of "hiding" a sales assistant in a stockroom at a London outlet because her prosthetic arm didn't fit with its "look policy", a tribunal has heard.

A 22-year-old law student from Greenford, west London, claims she was removed from the shop floor at the company's Savile Row branch when management became aware of her disability.  The sales assistant who was born without her left forearm and has worn a prosthetic limb since she was three months old, is suing for disability discrimination after she was left "personally diminished [and] humiliated" when she refused to remove her cardigan at work last summer

Story 4

Sky Sports presenters Andy Gray and Richard Keys are sacked after making several comments about a female referee, called Sian Massey. The furore began on Saturday when Keys and Gray, believing their microphones were switched off, were recorded before the game at Molineux saying that Massey and other female assistant referees "did not know the offside rule". Keys added: "Somebody better get down there and explain offside to her."

Session 2.3

Session Title: Discrimination

HWB Organiser(s)

  • Mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing
  • Religious and Moral Education

Experiences and Outcomes

HWB 3-10A, 4-10A

I recognise that each individual has a unique blend of abilities and needs.  I contribute to making my school community one which values individuals equally and is a welcoming place for all. 

RME   4-07e

 I am developing respect for others and my understanding of their beliefs and values

Learning Intentions

  • I can discuss what discrimination is and list some different forms which exist


  •  Flipcharts with one of each of the headings (racism, ageism, sexism, homophobia, discrimination on the ground of disability, discrimination on the grounds of religion and belief)
  • Pens
  • Lyrics to Black Eyed Peas song: where is the love?


We are now going to look at discrimination.   Ask young people if any of them know the difference between prejudice and discrimination. 

  • Prejudice:  Believing some people are inferior or superior without even knowing them.  – a judgement
  • Discrimination: Treating people unfairly because of their race, colour, gender, class, age, etc.

Put participants in to groups and give each group a flip chart with one of the following headings;

  • Racism
  • Ageism
  • Sexism
  • Homophobia
  • Discrimination on the grounds of disability
  • Discrimination on the grounds of religion and belief

Ask young people to use words, imagery and examples to create a definition of that type of discrimination.  Check against following answers;


  • Treating someone unfairly because of their race, colour, and nationality, ethnic or national origins.


  • Treating someone unfairly because of their age or the age you think they are.


  • Treating someone unfairly because of their gender. Men, women and transsexuals can all experience sexism.


  • Treating someone unfairly because they are gay, lesbian or bisexual, or you think they have this sexual orientation.

Discrimination because of religion or belief

  • Treating someone unfairly because they are a different religion or hold different beliefs, or because they have no religious beliefs. Or because someone thinks you have certain beliefs when actually you do not.

Discrimination because of disability

  • Treating someone unfairly because they have a disability or because you think they have a disability.

Where is the love;

Give out the handout with the lyrics to the song, if possible play the song or watch the video also (available on YouTube).  See extensions/adaptations for other songs which can be used.

  1. What are the issues that we are facing in society covered in the song? terrorism, war, (racism, discrimination, pollution, intolerance, greed, government hypocrisy, greed, juvenile crime and the invasion of Iraq)
  2. What feelings does the song talk about? (misery, distress and regret)
  3. What emotional response does the song evoke?
  4. What does the song advocate as being the solution to the worlds problem? ( Love and peace)
  5. Draw a picture or write a few sentences that describe the message, viewpoint or lesson the songwriter was trying to convey.   Include examples from the song in your explanation.
  6. Do you believe the message of the song is relevant today?   If so, is it relevant in your school, your community, the nation, the world, or all of them? If not, why not?
  7. What words, lines or phrases in the song do you personally relate to?
  8. What might be an alternate title for the song?


  • Discrimination is treating someone unfairly, because of their identity; because of ‘who they are’ - black, white, gay, Muslim, Christian, male, female etc.
  • Some people choose to treat other people unfairly, just because of ‘who they are’, they don’t even know them, but they treat them unfairly.
  • We are all born different, so is it unfair to treat someone different, just because of ‘who they are’.   In the next session we will look more at what is fair and unfair and how we can address unfair treatment. 


Prejudice or Discrimination;

Read out follow statements and ask young people are they Prejudice or Discrimination.

  • John and Robert are a gay couple.  When they arrive at the hotel they booked months ago, they are told that the manager will not allow two men to share a bed in his hotel
  • Martin Luther King is shot dead whilst protesting about equal pay for black and white people in America
  • In the 1970s, South Africa had separate schools for black and white people.  Schools reserved for the country's white children were of Western standards and the education was both mandatory and free.   30% of the black schools did not have electricity, 25% no running water and less than half had plumbing.
  • Stephen protests against women wearing burkas in his local supermarket. 
  • Martin jokes that he hopes there is no Muslim man beside him on the flight.
  • Nicola tells Stacey that her mum said that all Muslims are terrorists
  • In the UK, security guards and police men often use racial profiling (illegal), meaning they are more likely to stop a non-white person.  Evidence suggests that a black person is 4 times more likely to be stopped by the police than a white person

Discrimination and human rights: All forms of discrimination go against the first two Articles of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights:

Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Sum up what the Declaration of Human Rights says about prejudice and discrimination

Examples of discrimination include:

  • Many women are paid less than men for the same kind of work.
  • Disabled people are a lot more likely to have no job.
  • People of different races find it harder to get a job.
  • Many lesbian and gay people are worried about asking the police for help in case they are treated unfairly.

Alternative Song Lyrics:

Group Activity: Effects of Discrimination. Ask young people to think about the effects of discrimination on;

The Victim
Physical and emotional impacts:
anxiety, sadness, depression and a feeling of guilt and emptiness. These often translate into depression, loss of interest, eating disorders and stress-related ailments.

Social, educational and financial impacts:
Discrimination, harassment and victimization leave the individual confused and depresssed.
They may take to alcohol or drugs, or may form their own opinions on others, develop hatred for others, or withdraw from people.   It can affect them financially, they may poorly at school or quit school, may loose their job,

Society and Businesses
Communities and businesses that fail to take strong action on discrimination tend to be lower in productivity. This is because people feel disgruntled, and loose interest in working hard. There is a drop in morale, trust and confidence on the part of the employees. People with talents and exceptional skills and abilities are not attracted to these places because they do not want to be discriminated against.

People who face racial discrimination may regroup with some vengeance in mind against other groups. This can fuel conflicts and social discords. In fact many conflicts and wars have been started in this way.

Session 2.4

Session Title

Fair or Unfair

HWB Organiser(s)

Mental, emotional, social and physical wellbeing

Religious and Moral Education

Experiences and Outcomes

 HWB 3-10A, 4-10A

I recognise that each individual has a unique blend of abilities and needs.  I contribute to making my school community one which values individuals equally and is a welcoming place for all. 

RME   4-07e

 I am developing respect for others and my understanding of their beliefs and values

Learning Outcomes

  • I can show an understanding of what equality is


  • Paper/pens

Two minute challenge/recap

In pairs, list as many forms of discrimination as you can. We will share as a class but you can’t repeat anyone’s suggestions so think of as many as you can


What is unfair?    20 mins

Explore young people’s perception of what is fair/unfair.

Ask Young people work to work in pairs and firstly list all the things that are unfair. Then repeat with the word fair.

Young People take it in turns to list ‘unique’ words on the board under columns. Did they have more fair or unfair words?

Present the definition of unfair (behaving in a way that is not treating people equally) and explore whether their words reflect the true meaning of unfairness.

Ask young people to raise their hand to say if you think these facts are fair or unfair.

  • A Premiership football can earn more in a week than a nurse does in 3 years. 
  • Today the richest 1% of the world’s people receive as much as the poorest 57%
  • In Britain people from ethnic minorities are twice as likely to be unemployed as white people
  •  Female literacy rates have been rising but still two-thirds of the world’s 860 million illiterate adults are women
  • Nowhere in the world do women hold equal political power to men, but some countries are getting close to equal representation in parliament
  • Disabled adults are three times as likely to have no qualifications compared to non-disabled people.
  • People with a disability or long-term illness are over twice as likely to face bullying or harassment in the workplace as non-disabled people
  • Two thirds of lesbian, gay and bisexual young people report being bullied.

Equality is about ensuring that every individual has an equal opportunity to make the most of their lives and talents, and believing that no one should have poorer life chances because of where, what or whom they were born, what they believe, or whether they have a disability. Equality recognises that historically, certain groups of people with particular characteristics e.g. race, disability, sex and sexuality, have experienced discrimination.

Equality/Inequality........All equal?     10 mins

Equality is having equal opportunities and rights. It is being treated fairly. It also means being able and supported to reach your potential.

Inequality is when people aren’t given equal opportunities and rights. They are treated unfairly and experience discrimination

Working in pairs ask young people to complete the following statements;

“When I think of equality, I think of ............”

 “When I think of inequality, I think of ..............”

Then they came for me   10 mins

First they came …” is a famous statement and provocative poem attributed to pastor Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) about the of German intellectuals following the Nazis rise to power and the subsequent removal of their chosen targets, group after group

Read the group the following quote;

“In Germany they came first for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up.” --Pastor Martin Niemöller, 1945


  • What is being described in the poem?
  • How does it make you feel?
  • What message is the author trying to say?
  • What does he mean by, “I didn’t speak up”? What are some ways he could have “spoken up”?
  • Why do people stand up for others?
  • When are we most likely to take responsibility for the behavior of those around us? When are we least likely?
  • What famous people in history have “stood up” for those around them? How did they do this? What challenges did they face?
  • Do you think he is suggesting that people should speak out for others regardless of our group or identify?

Summary: Even today, Niemöller’s lines have meaning. They are often altered to fit differing political or social agendas, but they stand as a universal call for social action and solidarity and vigilance in the face of oppression and injustice.Can you imagine a time when it was legal not to hire women because of their gender? Or when children were not legally protected from abusive parents?   It may be hard to believe, but both were acceptable until advocates stepped in to stop these injustices.   Social justice movements are born out of people’s courage to stand up for those who are being oppressed in society.   The history of national movements, such as the women’s rights movement and the civil rights movement, have been well documented

Extension/take-home:  Updating Niemöller’s Quote Ask young people to think about Martin Niemöller’s quote, and develop their own plea for personal and collective responsibility in their community/school.  Ask young people to think about a societal issue they care about.   It can be a local issue or a world-wide issue. Examples might be racism, school bullying, or civil rights. Re-write the quote persuading their classmates to agree with their position. Be creative. They can stick with Niemöller’s structure, or use their own structure.

School Policies: Ask young people to think about how is bullying, racism or other forms of discrimination dealt with in school.  Discuss the following questions;

  • Do they think the policies work?
  • Could they be improved?
  • How can they raise any concerns or issues?
  • Who should they contact?
  • Do they know they process?